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Are native mobile apps worth the cost when web is an option?

There are strong arguments on both sides of the native vs. responsive web app debate. But in most cases, cost may be the factor that buries native and makes web the way to go.

Developers have been making the case for web apps over native mobile apps for many years now. Native apps, the...

argument says, are expensive to create and support; responsive web apps leverage a single code base and design to support all devices.

You don't have to look far to find counterpoints to the web app argument, but actions may speak louder than words in this debate. In 2016, an article on GovInsider fanned the flames of the mobile platform debate. In the piece, Ben Terret, former head of design for the U.K.'s Government Digital Service (GDS) discussed the reasons why the agency has banned native app development in favor of HTML5 web apps with a common UX framework. These reasons revolved primarily around the huge cost of building and maintaining those native mobile applications on a large scale.

Should you ban native mobile apps, too? Are they worth the cost of development? What are the criteria for making that decision?

Going native

At the iPhone's launch, the price of entry was distributing compiled Objective-C binaries through Apple's App Store. Objective-C wasn't the friendliest language for the average web developer to learn, but at least there was just one platform, and an active community quickly developed to offer support and encouragement.

That was nine years ago, and in the interim, Google launched Android with Java as its native language, HTML5 was designed and adopted by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) with features that made responsive web apps practical, and cross-platform libraries like Xamarin and PhoneGap (Apache Cordova) emerged that attempted to bestow the best of both worlds. After almost a decade of evolution, there are basically four paths you can take: native, cross-platform, web and hybrid apps that have some features of each.

The same economic issues that made the web more attractive than the fat clients of the '90s come into play when enterprises support native apps on heterogeneous device populations.

Given a specific set of user requirements, native app development is still likely to be the most expensive path, especially in environments with heterogeneous device populations. In order to deploy on both Android and iOS devices, you will need engineers skilled in Java and either Objective-C or Apple's newer Swift language. The tool chain, deployment path, release approval criteria and support requirements are different in each case.

Moreover, because these approaches rely on users pulling compiled binaries to their devices, you cannot update the client experience without following through on a new binary release with each change set. You can surely leverage a common back end through REST APIs, but on the client side, the world will look a lot like it did in 1995.

The web and hybrid

On the other end of the scale, HTML5 web apps designed with responsive markup and CSS styles are usually going to be the least expensive alternative. Despite all the new capabilities in compliant browsers, this is still essentially web development. Designers need to be highly skilled at creating markup that scales and looks right across a very wide variety of devices. Developers have access to cool new features like WebSockets and local storage, but the basic tools are still HTML, JavaScript and web frameworks, all things your teams already use and know well.

In the middle of the cost scale are the compromises. Cross-platform frameworks like those mentioned above allow your team to write in a single language (JavaScript, for example, or C#) and compile for multiple device platforms. The binaries are usually significantly larger, as much as an order of magnitude, due to all of the common library code that must be included, and the user interface patterns and design conventions are often a least common denominator mishmash of components that work on all of the supported devices. In terms of deployment and support, cross-platform frameworks offer few advantages over native development: You still have to push compiled binaries to end-user devices and support them there.

This last point is also true of so called "hybrid apps," which are responsive web apps contained within a native binary hosting a web browser control. The application starts up, creates the web control and then the control loads the markup from a server. The advantages of a hybrid app over a straight up HTML5 app include more control over the app lifecycle, a better user experience around notifications and access to slick native effects and controls that can still be difficult to recreate in a web browser. Among the disadvantages: You still need developers who can work in the native language of the device to create and maintain the wrapper app, but most or all of the complicated user features can be done as web pages.

Which one to choose

Given these choices, why would you not follow the lead of the GDS and ban native mobile apps? There are several valid business reasons for bucking that trend, and the decision factors mostly boil down to the following two: how many different versions do you need, and how important is the tactile and visual nature of the user experience?

In situations where all of the users are on a common device platform and OS, the costs of native development are reduced, simply due to needing fewer of the things mentioned above: engineers, tools and processes. This is even more prevalent with the Android platform, where the deployment model is more open than that of iOS, or that of Windows Phone, where you can own the distribution pipeline if you need.

In terms of the client-side experience, it isn't hard to see that many organizations that continue to focus on native development are investing much of their brand capital in awesome user interfaces. Companies working on chat apps, news feeds, video streaming, gaming and other apps where a lot of the value rests on the way the client looks and feels have a strong incentive to invest in that piece.

The situation may be different for enterprise line-of-business (LOB) apps where security, information accuracy and availability are all more important considerations. Some organizations will find themselves walking both sides of that line when both internal LOB apps and broad retail customer bases expect sophisticated and smooth user experiences that delight their senses.

For the rest of us, the trend of hybrid and responsive web apps being the default choice is likely to continue. The same economic issues that made the web more attractive than the fat clients of the '90s come into play when enterprises support native apps on heterogeneous device populations, and those forces will continue to direct organizations toward tools that make it easier to create and deploy mobile applications.

Developing a native app may very well be worth it if your brand depends on competing for fickle user eyeballs, but the average enterprise LOB application will not see a big return on investment from choosing native over responsive web or hybrid application models.

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This was last published in October 2016

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Are responsive web apps good enough for your enterprise mobile app needs?
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Great article Mark!

Another thing to consider is that a few new JavaScript-driven native frameworks—NativeScript, React Native, Fuse Tools, Tabris, and so forth—are trying to combine the ease of use of hybrid apps with the power of native apps.

The idea is that developers still get to use tools they’re familiar with  to build apps from a single codebase, but can still build the very best from a user experience perspective. The recent “The State of JavaScript” survey can give you an idea of just how much interest developers have in these new frameworks.

Full disclosure: I work on the NativeScript team at Progress Software. That being said, we make a lot of tooling for hybrid applications as well, and we’re seeing an extraordinary rise in demand for cross-platform native frameworks like NativeScript and React Native.
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