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What means of SOA exist other than Web services?

Most people talk about SOA and Web services in the same breath. What other means of SOA exist other than Web services?
Web services are a particular implementation of SOA. It adds to SOA the protocol specification of SOAP over HTTP. Web services use UDDI as its service registry, and WSDL to describe the services.

There are non-Web service implementations of SOA that provide the benefits of SOA. Protocol independence allows different consumers to use the services by communicating with the service in different ways. An SOA could provide SOAP over HTTP as a protocol implementation, rather than the protocol implementation. Other mechanisms of calling the service may be local calls, RMI, etc.
This was last published in June 2003

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